Treatment of Injuries


Minor Burns

  1. Cool the burn. Rinse it with cool water.

    • Cooling the burn reduces swelling by conducting heat away from the skin. Hold the burned area under cool (not cold) running water for 10 to 15 minutes or until the pain subsides. If this is impractical, immerse the burn in cool water or cool it with cold compresses.
    • Do not put ice on the burn.

  2. Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage. Do not use fluffy cotton or other material that may get lint in the wound.
  3. Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps air from the burn, reduces pain, and protects blistered skin.
  4. Provide a pain reliever only If the person with the burn has taken an over-the-counter pain reliever before without any adverse effects. These include aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen (Tylenol).
  5. Keep the wound clean. Usually, minor burns heal without further treatment.

Major Burns

Call 911 or emergency medical help.


  1. Wash the cut carefully with water. If it is minor, stop the blood flow with a band-aid.

  2. Seek medical help if the wound does not stop bleeding.


The universal sign of choking is hands clutched to the throat. If the person does not give the signal, look for these indications:
  1. Inability to talk
  2. Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing
  3. Inability to cough forcefully
  4. Skin, lips, and nails turning blue
  5. Loss of consciousness
For anyone over the age of 1 who is choking...

  • Phone 911 .
  • Use abdominal thrusts.
    1. From behind the victim, wrap your arms around his or her waist.
    2. Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist against the victim's abdomen below the ribcage and above the navel.
    3. Grasp your fist with the other hand and press upwards and inwards. Check the mouth after each thrust.
    4. Give up to five abdominal thrusts. If the obstruction does not clear after three cycles of back blows and abdominal thrusts, get help.
    5. Phone 911 for help.
If you are by yourself, and you are choking...
  • Attempt to do the thrusts on yourself.
  • Lean heavily on a chair back in thrusts to loosen the obstruction.

Back Injury

Prevention is the key! Lifting heavy equipment or cases of food can cause injury to the back. Always have help to lift heavy items.

Follow these steps to avoid injury:

  1. Plan before lifting
    • Know where you are to place the item and be sure the path is clear.
    • Avoid quick or awkward movements.
    • Lift close to your body.

  2. Keep your body close to the item.
    • Hold the object you are lifting with a firm grip.
    • Balance the object close to your body.

  3. Keep your feet approximately shoulder-width apart.
    • A solid base of support is important while lifting. Holding your feet too close together is unstable; too far apart hinders movement.
    • Keep your feet about shoulder-width apart and take short steps.

  4. Bend your knees and keep your back straight.
    • Try to keep your spine straight. Raise and lower to the ground by bending your knees.
    • Lift with your legs ?" not your back. Your legs are many times stronger than your back muscles; let your strength work in your favour.

  5. Tighten your stomach muscles.
    • Tightening your abdominal muscles holds your back in a good lifting position and helps prevent excessive force on the spine.

  6. If you are having difficulty, get help.
    • If an object is too heavy or awkward, be sure to ask for help.
    • if you are lifting something with another person, be sure both know and agree on the plan.

  7. Use equipment! Various lifting devices are available, such as slings, prybars, rollers, and dollies ?" and forklifts for very heavy objects.

Electric Shock

  1. Turn the power off!
  2. Call 911.
  • NEVER touch the victim directly until the power is off.

  • If you do not have access to the power shut-off, attempt to remove the victim from the electrical sources in the following way:

    • Use a dry board, a broom handle, a rubber shoe, clothing, or other available non-conductive material to free the victim from electrical contact. Protect yourself with dry insulating material such as rolled up clothing, a wooden broomstick, etc.

    • Do not touch the victim until the source of electricity has been removed.

    • After the victim has been removed from the electrical source, determine whether the person is breathing.

    • If the person is not breathing, call 911 immediately. Use a method of artificial respiration.



The best choice is to phone 911 or the poison control centre immediately.