How to Cite References

If you conduct any research in your assignments in this course, you must cite your references or sources. Depending on your teacher or assignment requirements, this may require formal citation. If you are unsure of what you need to record or cite when you are doing research, you should ask your teacher.

For Social Studies 20-2 assignments, there is space to record your sources within each assignment page. Unless otherwise specified, you do not need to do a formal Bibliography or Reference page.

Why do I need to cite or indicate my sources?

Firstly, failure to cite your references can lead to charges of plagiarism, which is a serious academic offense and can result in losing marks and receiving further disciplinary action (such as a zero on your assignment, or removal from the course).

Secondly, citing any sources used is your responsibility as a student. If you are using any information that isn't your own, you have to credit the person, media, site, or organization from which you took the information.

The Bibliography (or Reference) page is typically the last page of your assignment, and includes all the sources you used to find information for your assignment. Entries should be arranged alphabetically by authors' surnames and by titles of their works, and should include full bibliographic details, as follows.
  • name(s) of author(s)
  • full title of work
  • place and publisher
  • date of publication
  • For articles, include the periodical title and inclusive page numbers.


One author

Ornstein, Robert E. The Psychology of Consciousness. 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1977.

Two or three authors

Gesell, Arnold, and Frances L. Ilg. Child Development: An Introduction to the Study of Human Growth. New York: Harper, 1949.

More than three authors

Spiller, Robert, et al. Literary History of the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Corporate author

United States Capitol Society. We, the People: The Story of the United States Capitol. Washington, DC: National Geographic Soc., 1964.

One of multiple volume

Pizer, Donald and Earl N. Harbert, eds. American Realists and Naturalists. Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Vol. 12 of Dictionary of Literary Biography. 128 vols. to date. 197shy

One work in an anthology/title within title

Dimock, George E., Jr. "The Name of Odysseus". Essays on The Odyssey: Selected Modern Criticism. Ed. Charles H. Taylor. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1963. 54-72.

Periodical Articles

Known volume, issue number and year

Posen, I. Sheldon, and Joseph Sciorra. "Brooklyn's Dancing Tower". Natural History 92.6(1983): 30-3

No volume number, no author name

"The Vietnam War: The Executioner." Newsweek 13 Nov. 1978: 70. Newspaper article Greeley, Andrew. "Today's Morality Play: The Sitcom". New York Times. 17 May 1987, late ed., sec. 2: 1+.

Two publications by the same author

Foulkes, David. "Dreams of Innocence". Psychology Today Dec. 1978: 78-88.

Foulkes, David. The Psychology of Sleep. New York: Scribner's, 1966.

Internet and CD-ROM Sources

Part of an Online Book

Dickinson, Emily. "With Flowers". Poems. 1896. Project Bartleby, Columbia University. 6 June 1999 < >.

Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray.1890 Bibliomania 27 June 2006 < >.

CD-ROM version (NB: The end date is from the CD surface, not the journal.)

O'Shea, Dan. "Fabled Publisher Goes on the Net". Telephone 227.22 (1994):7. Business Periodicals Ondisc. CD-ROM. University Microfilm International. Nov. 1994.

Schultz, Susan M. "Postmodern Promos". Postmodern Culture.3.1 (Sept. 1992): Online.

Article in an Online Journal

Youngquist, Walter. "Alternative Energy Sources?"Myths and Realities". Electronic Green Journal. 9. (Dec 1998). 1998. June 1999 < >.

Non-Print Sources

Television program

"Shakespearean Putdowns". Narr. Robert Siegel and Linda Wertheimer. All Things Considered. Natl. Public Radio. WUWM, Milwaukee. 6 Apr. 1994.


Capra, Frank, dir. It's a Wonderful Life. 1946. Videocassette. Republic,1988.


Greenhill, H. Gaylon. Personal interview. 19 May 1995.